Epidemiology of Chronic Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury

Journal of Neurotrauma 2021; 38:3235–3247
Authored By:
Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Mary Jo Pugh, Eric M Prager, Nicole Harmon, Jessica Wolfe, and Kristine Yaffe
Although many patients diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly mild TBI, recover from their symptoms within a few weeks, a small but meaningful subset experience symptoms that persist for months or years after injury and significantly impact quality of life for the person and their family. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of negative TBI outcomes include not only characteristics of the injury and injury mechanism, but also the person’s age, pre-injury status, comorbid conditions, environment, and propensity for resilience. In this article, as part of the Brain Trauma Blueprint: TBI State of the Science framework, we examine the epidemiology of long-term outcomes of TBI, including incidence, prevalence, and risk factors. We identify the need for increased longitudinal, global, standardized, and validated assessments on incidence, recovery, and treatments, as well as standardized assessments of the influence of genetics, race, ethnicity, sex, and environment on TBI outcomes. By identifying how epidemiological factors contribute to TBI outcomes in different groups of persons and potentially impact differential disease progression, we can guide investigators and clinicians toward more-precise patient diagnosis, along with tailored management, and improve clinical trial designs, data evaluation, and patient selection criteria.
Published in:
Journal of Neurotrauma

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