Phenotyping the Spectrum of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review and Pathway to Standardization

Journal of Neurotrauma 2021; 38:3222–3234
Authored By:
Mary Jo Pugh, Eamonn Kennedy, Eric M. Prager, Jeffrey Humpherys, Kristen Dams-O’Connor, Dallas Hack, Mary Katherine McCafferty, Jessica Wolfe, Kristine Yaffe, Michael McCrea, Adam R. Ferguson, Lee Lancashire, Jamshid Ghajar, and Angela Lumba-Brown
It is widely appreciated that the spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI), mild through severe, contains distinct clinical presentations, variably referred to as subtypes, phenotypes, and/or clinical profiles. As part of the Brain Trauma Blueprint TBI State of the Science, we review the current literature on TBI phenotyping with an emphasis on unsupervised methodological approaches, and describe five phenotypes that appear similar across reports. However, we also find the literature contains divergent analysis strategies, inclusion criteria, findings, and use of terms. Further, whereas some studies delineate phenotypes within a specific severity of TBI, others derive phenotypes across the full spectrum of severity. Together, these facts confound direct synthesis of the findings. To overcome this, we introduce PhenoBench, a freely available code repository for the standardization and evaluation of raw phenotyping data. With this review and toolset, we provide a pathway toward robust, data-driven phenotypes that can capture the heterogeneity of TBI, enabling reproducible insights and targeted care.
Published in:
Journal of Neurotrauma

More Publications

April 18, 2024

Nature Genetics

Genome-wide association analyses identify 95 risk loci and provide insights into the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder

March 5, 2024

Translational Psychiatry

Potential causal association between gut microbiome and posttraumatic stress disorder

January 29, 2024

Scientific Reports

Differential recruitment of brain circuits during fear extinction in non-stressed compared to stress resilient animals

December 29, 2023

Journal of Law and the Biosciences

Defusing the legal and ethical minefield of epigenetic applications in the military, defense, and security context

August 1, 2023

Journal of Psychopharmacology

Improving Translational Relevance in Preclinical Psychopharmacology (iTRIPP)

July 29, 2023

Frontiers in Neurology

Models and methods: a perspective of the impact of six IMI translational data-centric initiatives for Alzheimer’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders